V Roman Numeral for 5
variable subject to change. A letter or a symbol used to represent a number. For example in the expression 2x + 3 = 9, x is the variable
varies if x varies directly with y, then x α y and so x = ky, where k is the constant of variation
varies inversely if x varies inversely with y then x α 1/y and so x = k/y, where k is the constant of variation
velocity speed. The rate of change of distance over time. V = dx/dt
Venn diagrams the name given to diagram to represent two or more sets, most commonly used in probability
vertex corner of a shape
vertex of a parabola x coordinate = –b/2a
vertical a line that is straight up and down, perpendicular to horizontal
vertical line test if a vertical line is drawn through a graph and it cuts the graph at only one point, the graph is said to be a function. If it cuts more than once, it is not a function.
vlinetest In the first diagram the red line cuts the curve in two places, therefore it is not a function. In the second diagram it only cuts it once, therefore it is a function.
vertically opposite vertically opposite angles are equal to each other
vinculum the line in a fraction separating the numerator (top) from the denominator (bottom)
volume the amount of space a 3d shape takes up. Formulas for volume vary from shape to shape, the most basic being for a rectangular prism where V = ℓbh
vulgar fraction another term for common fraction, any fraction with a numerator (top) and a denominator (bottom)
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