P
Term 
Definition 


parallel  extending in the same direction, equidistant at all points, and never converging or diverging  
parallel lines  lines that are always equidistant apart, indicated by arrows on the lines to show they are parallel (or double arrows)  
pentagon  polygon with 5 sides  
per annum  per year  
perfect number  a perfect number is a number whose factors, excluding itself, add to the number. For example: 6. the factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3 and 6. Excluding 6 as the factor: 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, hence 6 is a perfect number. Other perfect numbers are: 6, 28, 496, 8128, 3 3550 336…  
perpendicular  when two lines meet at a right angle, indicated with the symbol: ⊥  
perimeter  the total length of all the sides  
polygon  a closed plane shape with 3 or more straight sides. Examples of polygons include: triangle, square, rectangle, pentagon, hexagon  
polyhedron  a 3d shape made up of plane faces. Examples: cube, rectangular prism.  
positively skewed  The ‘tail’ is being pulled in the positive direction (ie to the right), and the bulk of the distribution is on the left. in formal terms the mode is less than the mean.  
prime number  a number which has only one set of factors, itself and one. 2 is the first prime number and the only even prime number. The prime numbers less than 100: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97 Use the Prime Number Calculator to check to see if a number is a prime 

principle  the original sum of money that has been invested or borrowed  
product  multiply or times  
pronumeral  a letter in algebra. eg: 4x + 1 has x as the pronumeral  
profit  the money made when something is sold for more than was paid for it. Profit = selling price – cost price  
Pythagoras Theorem  looking for they hypotenuse: c^{2} = a^{2} + b^{2} or use this if looking for one of the shorter side: a^{2} = c^{2} – b^{2} 